W10, #2: 6 DEGREES OF SEPARATION

Who: All periods

Set-Up: There is an expression — “6 degrees of separation” — that suggests how connected we individuals are as collective humanity, no matter how big a world it may be.  In short, it means that:

if a person is one step away from each person they know and two steps away from each person who is known by one of the people they know, then everyone is an average of six “steps” away from each person on Earth.

Playing off of this concept, we’re going to play a weekly game called “6 Degrees of Separation” where we are given 2 topics (that seem to have nothing in common) which we must figure out a creative way to connect.  The trick is that we have to use a logical set of connections to show how the 2 items are related in “6 steps”.  Additionally, we will also offer a bit of trivia about each new step to showcase our knowledge and imagination.

Example: Let’s take 2 random topics — Ancient Egypt and “Lord of the Flies” — and figure out how to connect them in “6 steps” with some added trivia to show our knowledge:

Step 1: When someone in America thinks of ancient Egypt (1), he/she can’t help but think of legendary pharaohs given that everything one can easily think of from that period of Egypt’s history — from golden statues to the Great Pyramids — are remnants of these god-like leaders. It’s particularly interesting that pharaohs were often buried with everything they owned, gifts for them for the afterlife, and even their living servants.

Step 2: The most famous pharaoh (2) that I can think of is King Tut (1) which was one of my favorite stories growing up.  Even though the amazing amount of gold discovered and the identity of the “boy king” were supposed to be the important parts of the story, this wasn’t what captured my attention at first. As a young kid, I actually daydreamed a lot about the idea of a curse placed on all of the people involved in finding the original tomb, especially given that the spirit of the pharaoh may have been angry that they disturbed his eternal slumber. This led me to study a range of curses and superstitions when I was in elementary school.

Step 3: King Tut’s (2) exhibit just arrived in Dallas (3) — as a major art exhibit called “King Tut and the Golden Age of Pharoahs” being held at the Dallas Museum of Art — for several months.  Hundreds of thousands of people (paying up to $32/ticket) are expected to attend the show, including some of our own art and archeology students who will go there on an upcoming fieldtrip.

Step 4: On Elm Street in Dallas (3), specifically near the Texas School Book Depository (4), was the location of President John F. Kennedy’s assassination in 1963.

Step 5: The Texas School Book Depository (4) was “a multi-floor warehouse for the storage of school textbooks and related materials” (according to Wikipedia) that shut down in 1970 when the business moved out.  It was also in the year 1970 that the American Library Association awarded the first Coretta Scott King Award was given to African-American writers/illustrators who focused on the creation of books specifically for children and young people (5).

Step 6: One of the most famous school books ever taught in the United States, Lord of the Flies (6), appears to be about children and young people (5). Clearly, however, it is not “just a book about kids on an island”.  Golding’s book was ranked by Time Magazine as one of the 100 best English language books published since 1923 (and was also ranked by the American Library Association as one of the most “challenged” books between 1990-2000.)

Challenge: Using these 2 random ideas, connect them in “6 steps”:

  • “Don’t Mess with Texas” (hint — do you know the original ad campaign? — hint)
  • The United Nations (the UN)

Length: Varies

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21 responses to “W10, #2: 6 DEGREES OF SEPARATION

  1. Don’t Mess With Texas (1) a slogan to stop littering in Texas, which began in 1986, is also the motto of the USS Texas (2). The USS Texas is a Virginia class submarine and the fourth ship form the United States Navy to be named after Texas.
    The USS Texas (2) was christened by Laura Bush (3) on July 31st 2004. Laura Bush, the first lady of the United States of America, is a big supporter of literacy because she is a former librarian. She is also a supporter of education.
    Laura Bush (3) is married to President of the United States George W. Bush (4). George W. Bush was born in Connecticut, grew up in Texas and was the governor of Texas. He also co-owned the Texas Ranger baseball team for a while.
    During his presidency George W. Bush (4) had to lead the country through a tough time when terrorists hijacked planes and flew them into the world trade center in New York (5), as well as the Pentagon and a field in Pennsylvania. There is now a memorial being built in New York for all who lost their lives in the terrorist attacks.
    New York (5) is also home to one of the offices of the United Nations (6). The United Nations consists of 192 countries that all work together to maintain peace. The UN fights against terrorists, and tries to stop drug trafficking. They fight for human rights and try to make the world a better place.

    ***

    Mr. Long:
    Rather like the quirky fact about the motto of the Navy ship. Definitely won’t forget that! And great move from Laura Bush to her husband to NYC.

  2. 1. If you have lived in Texas for any amount of time, you have probably heard the phrase “Don’t Mess With Texas” (1). Texans are very proud and protective of their status. We love where we are from and will get in anybody’s face who tries to put down our great state. The phrase was actually created in 1986 as part of an anti-littering campaign. The phrase witnessed immediate success in its original use, but has also become a cultural trademark of those of us from Texas.

    2. Whenever I see the phrase “Don’t Mess With Texas” (1), I am immediately reminded of a Texas Ranger’s (2) baseball game. The phrase is prominently displayed when The Rangers score a home-run. The Rangers are based here in Arlington and they have a stadium which I have gone to many times. Baseball games are a lot of fun to go to, and the pride Texans have in their teams only increases the fun of a night at the Ranger’s stadium (now properly called the Rangers Ballpark in Arlington after several name changes caused by the sponsorship of Ameriquest).

    3. The Texas Ranger’s (2) are just one of the many sports (3) teams throughout our country. Some of the teams here in the U.S.A have even become international symbols like the Dallas Cowboys and New York Yankees. Sports are a major part of our society, being a popular ‘water-cooler’ subject throughout the nation.

    4. With sports(3) being an extremely popular subject, Newspapers(4) nationwide cover the subject with a sports section. Newspapers are available to everybody in the United States daily and are one of the top places to look for information on current events in the world and at home. However, the Internet is beginning to surpass the newspaper because of the quick availability and ease of use of the Internet.

    5. The newspaper (4) often reports about today’s politics (5) and usually has a section devoted to political proceedings. Politics is a very important subject to most Americans because it plays a crucial part of our lives. The recent election is an example of how engrained politics are in our lives. Even as 10th graders, who can’t even vote, most of us became extremely involved in the proceedings of the election and truly cared about its outcome.

    6. One of the largest institutions of international politics (5) is the United Nations (6). The UN was organized in 1945, after World War II, in an attempt to stop wars between countries and provide a platform for dialogue internationally. There are currently 192 member states, with the headquarters being in New York City. The UN is a peacekeeping institution that has served our world since its founding.

    ***

    Mr. Long: Never knew that about the Rangers scoreboard. Cool bit of trivia.

  3. 1. Don’t Mess With Texas, an anti-littering program started in Texas (included in the litter is the improper disposal of cigarette butts)
    2. Adopt a Highway, developed from the Don’t Mess with Texas campaign, the first highway adopt was in Texas
    3. Adopt-a-Highway is a grassroots movement involving nearly 90,000 groups in 49 states, including other countries such as Puerto Rico, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and Japan.
    4. In August 2, 2003 Tokyo, the first day of a new ordinances target Tokyo’s discarded butts.
    5. November 10, 2006, The New Zealand Beautiful Society started a campaign to end cigarette butt litter
    6. New Zealand was a founding member of the United Nations in 1945.

    ***

    Mr. Long: Never knew about the Adopt a Highway program connection to the Don’t Mess With Texas concept. Cool detail. And love the idea of NZ being a founding member of the UN.

  4. Yayayayayay I love these:]

    Mr. Long: That makes you my favorite student! (smile)

    NUMERO UNO: “Don’t Mess With Texas”(1) is originally the slogan for a campaign against litter here in the Lone Star State. The site is quite informative and has nice little ads, many of which include quite the array of celebrities. Even Chamillionaire was in on all the advertisement fun. Good times and laughs for all. Oh, and they even have a litter site for kids. Name? LITTER FORCE! Ultra, Hawk, Bolt, and K-900 are ready to clean up this house. Another site is for young adults. Clicking around on this site you come across a photos page. In the background of one of these pictures is an American flag. How patriotic(2) of you, Don’t Mess With Texas.

    NUMMER TWEE: Ah, America the Beautiful. I won’t talk about any current presidents, (because goodness knows we don’t need any more of that) but I will mention Abraham Lincoln.(2) Honest Abe. The man on the penny. No matter what you call him, he was a pretty decent guy. He was an outspoken adversary to slavery in the U.S., a lawyer, a member of the House of Representatives, an Illinois state legislator, and of course the 16th president of the land of the free. Did you know there is a controversial claim he had syphilis? Just saying. Anyways, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14th 1865. Apparently as he leapt to the stage, Booth shouted, “Sic semper tyrannis!” which (translated from Latin) means “Thus always to tyrants.”

    Номер три: Old Abe(2) was not only a great president, he sported a great beard.(3) Unfortunately, his beard was just simply not up to par. A while back (last year?) you showed our advisory the site for the World Beard and Moustache Championships. And champions they were. If anyone is interested, here is the link:
    http://www.worldbeardchampionships.com/
    One of the most brilliant pieces of work on there is by far Elmar Weisser. You may be thinking, “Well golly, Student number something, what’s so great about Elmar? (Besides his name. Just rolls off the tongue)” Well reader, fret no more. Mr. Weisser’s beard is not simply long or twisted upwards to mock certain cultures. His is in a shape. No friends, I do not mean that of an dodecahedron or other geometrical paraphernalia. I’m talking about a BRIDGE. (Or if you want to split hairs, yes it’s technically geometrical and yes it’s technically a gate. Even though in 2007 he crushed the competition with London’s Tower Bridge.)

    ナンバー4: The stunning beard(3) of Elmar Weisser’s I have had the privilege of seeing on the website is in the shape of the Brandenburg Gate.(4) (But I don’t see the resemblance, really.) It is located in Berlin, Germany and is quite famous. Its design is based on Propylaea, the gateway to the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. Both John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan have visited it. When the Berlin Wall collapsed, this gate symbolized unity and the desire to unite the City of Berlin. Yay gate.

    Zahl fünf: Yes, Germany.(5) Hitler, Oktoberfest, and the first grade candy cone.

    Candy cone?

    Yes. Candy cone.
    Every year in late summer, little first graders stand outside their schools with their candy cones. According to legend, at teacher’s houses there is a tree decorated with candy cones. (Apparently not at your house, there’s no candy in that Frankenstein candy bowl. You tease.) Today candy cones can be bought in all shapes and sizes and are filled with candy, school supplies, and other various treats. I’m pretty sure they’re opened on the first day of first grade.

    NUMERO SIX: Guess what? Germany(5) is in the U.N.!(6) It joined on September 18, 1973. According to un.org, the UN and other various organizations it’s in cahoots with, work to promote respect for human rights, protect the environment, fight disease, and reduce poverty. Its 60th anniversary was September of 2005. Sounds good to me.

    ***

    Mr. Long: One of my favorite responses since the blog entry project began. Much fun in terms of the level of trivia/detail, the layering of humor/spontaneity, and the way you used logic at all times (but in the most unexpected ways). You can tell you had a devious smile on your face the entire time you were typing.

    You do get a smile for using the beard championships, BTW.

  5. 1. Don’t Mess With Texas is on a lot of bumper stickers
    2. Bumper stickers are used for campaigns
    3. Campaigns decide major world leaders
    4. World leaders sometimes form commities.
    5. One of these commities is made up of the USA, England, France, and many others
    6. These countries call their commities the United Nations

    ***

    Mr. Long: Is there a word/phrase for a) appreciating the logic but b) feeling as if the student managed to do as little as possible to pull off the assignment?

    Clearly — one can say with confidence — the difference between Student #4 and Student #5 suggests what it means to a) get ‘r done and b) celebrate one’s imagination. Credit will be given, but I’m hopeful this student will showcase his/her creativity and writing follow-through potential far more in the future.

  6. 1) Chuck Norris is one of the spokespersons for the “Don’t mess with Texas” campaign.
    2) Chuck Norris was once featured on Fox’s Family Guy.
    3) Family Guy is on the same network as American Dad.
    4) American Dad’s main character works for the CIA.
    5) The CIA is part of the United States government.
    6) The United States is part of the United Nations.

    ***

    Mr. Long: I appreciate your email re: the length/depth of this entry…and your statement that you didn’t need credit for it (b/c you’re only doing it for fun). Thanks. Never thought I’d see Chuck Norris and the United Nations in the same flow of ideas.

  7. ~Step 1~
    The Don’t Mess with Texas campaign (1) was started in 1986, and since then hundreds of tons of trash have been removed from Texas roadways. However, approximately 827 million pieces of litter accumulate on texas streets and highways each year. It is said that one out of two Texans admit to littering. Also now, you can be fined up to 500 dollars for littering in TX.

    ~Step 2~
    When thinking about the Don’t Mess with Texas campaign (1), a classic show also dealing with our great home state comes to mind. Walker, Texas Ranger (2) was a western/police drama that started in 1993. The show aired on CBS and was broadcast in over 100 countries. This series lasted 8 seasons and spawned at least one made-for- television movie.

    ~Step 3~
    Walker, Texas Ranger (2) was centered around Cordell Walker, who played a modern-day Texas Ranger. Walker’s crime fighting methods usually involved components of martial arts and also had their roots in the rugged traditions of the Old West. This bold and brave hero was played by none other than Chuck Norris (3).

    ~Step 4~
    Due to his beastly crime-fighting and tail-kicking skills, Chuck Norris (3) has become quite an idol. There are hundreds of jokes that have been created solely to emphasize how truly epic he is. An example: “There is no theory of evolution. Just a list of creatures that Chuck Norris has allowed to live.” Ha! Another great show involving a Chuck is Gossip Girl. (4)

    ~Step 5~
    Gossip Girl (4), is a show that details the lives of highschool students that attend and elite private school in New York City (5). This drama was inspired by the popular novel series of the same name by Cecily Von Ziegsar. Gossip Girl first premiered in Canada, but is now available in the U.S. on the CW.

    ~Step 6~
    New York City (5) has always been known as a place where many different cultures mix. Due to this fact, New York was a perfect place to house the headquarters for the United Nations (6). Even though it is in New York City, the land occupied by the U.N. headquarters is considered ‘international land.’ This also happens to be a beautiful complex, noted for it’s gardens and outdoor sculptures.

    –> And that my friends is how it’s done.

    ***

    Mr. Long: Yes, your friends need to take a close look and revel in the shine of your semantic imagination. Bravo. BTW, who would have thought it possible for Chuck Norris to show up in 2 entries back-to-back without being aware of each other. Love the serendipity!

  8. Step 1: “Don’t Mess with Texas” (1) is a slogan that basically says don’t litter according to all the advertisements for it on TV, and in the back of my Texas Driver’s Handbook. Basically don’t ever mess with Texas (2) ever.

    Step 2: Texas (2) is the best state ever. I live in that state, along with this guy named General Garrison(3).

    Step 3: General Garrison (3) is an actual military general. How I know him is because I watched the movie “Black Hawk Down”(4) directed by Ridley Scott.

    Step 4: “Black Hawk Down” (4)is an actual event that happened in 1993. It is considered the biggest firefight in American history. It takes place in a country called Somalia(5), Africa.

    Step 5 + 6: Somalia (5) was a country that was tearing itself apart and is still today. The powerful warlord who controls Somalia, Mohammad Farah Adid, uses hunger as his weapon. 300,00 die because of starvation.The United Nations, the UN, (6) respond by a force of 50,000 marines. They restore order and everything is happy. Then the marines leave and the UN peacekeepers are sent in to keep the peace. Mohammad Farah Adid’s militia attack them, and for that Clinton sends in Delta Force, the Rangers, and the 160th SOAR to remove Mohammad Farah Adid and restore order. This leads to the events of “Black Hawk Down.” The morale of this firefight and battle is you can only help the people who want to be help. ooo-rah.

  9. 1. The ‘Don’t Mess with Texas’ add campaign’s purpose was to stop littering in Texas. This campaign was started in 1986, and caught on very quickly.
    2. When I think of littering I think of garbage on the side of the road. The state of Texas has 72,000 miles of interstate and over 30,000 bridges. That is a lot of land to litter on, so keeping roads clean in Texas makes sense to me. Even though Texas is a state in America I don’t believe this add campaign would work for any other state name. (Come on ‘Don’t Mess with Idaho’ doesn’t have the same ring.
    3. The United States of America seems to be constituted by its multitude of roads and interstates. Much of the songs created here have something to do with the road and/or cars. This probably has something to do with the fact that cars themselves and the true idea of the freedom of the road was created in America.
    4. Unlike the USA nations of Europe do not seem to have the same connection to roads and vehicles this might be because they were not invented there or maybe because Europe lacks as much land as is in the US.
    5. Despite these differences the United States and Europe are still allies and belong to the same institutions advocating peace and world awareness/decisions that effect the entire world.
    6. One of these institutions is the UN or united nations.

  10. Step 1. The phrase “Don’t mess with Texas” (1) is, of course, a part of statewide advertisement campaign to combat littering on Texas roads. Littering is a nasty habit that causes enormous unintended consequences, including cost to tax payers and harm to animals. Apparently, the ad was very successful and is credited with reducing litter on Texas highways (2) 72% between 1986 and 1990.

    Step 2. The entire highway systems in Texas (2) has about 72,000 miles and 30,000 bridges. I don’t know if this is official, but my dad says that the highways that generally run east/west directions are even numbered, e.g. I-20 and I-30, and the highways that generally run north/south directions are odd-numbered, e.g. I-35 and I-45. For example, you can start from San Antonio, Texas, on I-35, go 820 miles until you reach Kansas City, MO, and switch off to I-29 and go another 716 miles to reach Duluth, North Dakota, which is right by Canada. By car (3) that should take you about 24 hours, nonstop.

    Step 3. Driving by car (3) such long distance through the flat prairie is, unfortunately, very boring. There are so limited things to do in a car, and the scenery can’t be much. But cars themselves are not boring. I find it interesting that even the word “car” is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum (wheeled vehicle) or the Middle English word carre (cart) or from karros (a Gallic wagon). The alternative word “automobile” comes from Greek auto (self) and French mobilis (moving). A 1997 report said that there are 600 million cars in the world. It says it’s bad for the environment (4) to have so many cars.

    Step 4. Being cognizant of the environmental (4) impact of what we do is very important. We need cars however, because we need to travel, and we love the machine. We just need to reduce the negative impacts by developing better technology for our cars. We should travel (5) on less fuel, create less waste, and of course, never litter.

    Step 5. Traveling (5) north/south using odd- numbered highways through US is boring, but consider traveling east/west, all the way to New York. From Dallas, you would take I-30, then, I-40, some I-81 (runs NE direction), and I-78 to New York. I’ve never made the 1,550 mile journey, but going through Arkansas, Tennessee, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey doesn’t sound bad. The terrain looks interesting, and with more population centers,
    it can’t be that bad. Of course, the final destination of New York, the home of United Nations (6) is fabulous.

    Step 6. The fact that United Nations (6) headquarters is situated in New York City is fitting. New York City, with its diverse population and perpetual excitement and energy, is the perfect setting for the world to come together to find the common ground to solve human problems. But you better leave your car back home, for there is no place to park in New York City.

  11. 1. The “Don’t mess with Texas” campaign is a call for stopping litter. The people in Texas have worked since 1986. We have removed a lot of the trash here on Texas’ roadways.

    2. Texas is one of the states of the Untied States. This region is the in the south, near the Gulf of Mexico. This is where the Cowboys’ new stadium and the Superbowl(I forgot what year) will be. This is the second largest state.

    3. Pres. Bush has many supporters here in Texas. His ranch also exists here too. Sen. John McCain also had many supporters from Texas in the Election of 2008.

    4. Sen. John McCain lost the presidency battle to Sen. Barack Obama. As the soon-to-be-president, Sen. Obama must make his staff for the White House, as the new President of the U.S.A

    5. The president has many responsiblities. He/she has to protect the country from other possible threats. They must also keep this nation running.

    6. To protect the country, the president must have talks with other countries. There are such talks within the UN. They are aimed at keeping international peace.

  12. 1. The United Nations (1) are kind of alliances. There have 185 countries in the United Nations. But Taiwan (2) is not in it, because like Taiwan this small island doesn’t have enough manpower and money to join. We don’t enough ability to handle the money in the UN.
    2. Taiwan (2) this beautiful island is where I born and grow up. I very proud of my country. Our country has very convenient traffic, not like America (3) we need to drive the car to everywhere I need to go. If I don’t have car or a ride, I just like doesn’t have feet to walk can’t go to any where.
    3. America (3) is a powerful country, big and strong. I came here to study, because here has better education than Taiwan. I want to success after graduate; I want to have a good job, so I came to Texas (4) Arlington to study in the Oakridge School.
    4. Texas (4) was very south of the America, here is peace and very quite. I think everybody know “Don’t Mess with Texas” (5) (I don’t know).
    5. “Don’t mess with Texas,” (5) meanings don’t cause any problems for people in Texas. I guess people in Texas are afraid of the rest of us – I’m not sure! The State of Texas has a reputation for independence, for doing its own thing, for being different than other states. ( Thats what i found on the internet and im not Texan) 😛

  13. 1) “Don’t mess with Texas” is an anti-litter slogan devised by the masterminds who work at GSD&M Idea City. It was released in 1986 for one of the company’s clients, the Texas Department of Transportation. GSD&M Idea City is an advertising agency based in Austin, Texas.

    2) One of GSD&M Idea City’s former clients was major film studio, DreamWorks. GSD&M Idea City relinquished DreamWorks in 2007.

    3) One of DreamWork’s most well-known film is Saving Private Ryan. The film stars Tom Hanks and Matt Damon and is directed and produced by Steven Spielberg. Spielberg is also one of the co-founders of DreamWorks (whoa, double connection!) Saving Private Ryan was nominated for 11 Academy Awards, with Spielberg winning Best Director. Saving Private Ryan takes place in Normandy.

    4) Normandy is in France. As we should all know by this point, French is the national language spoken in France. According to European Union, French is the third most spoken language in the world, after English and German. It is also the official language of 29 nations

    5) The Treaty of Westphalia was written in French. This treaty officially ended the 30 Years War, which was one of the worst conflicts Europe had seen up to that point. By writing the Treaty in French, French became the language of the politicians and government. It was the international language, and anybody who was anybody spoke fluent French.

    6) The Treaty of Westphalia was officially signed on October 24, 1648. Another occurrence on the date of October 24 was the creation of the United Nations. Ever since then, October 24 has been known as United Nations Day. According to un.org, it has been marked by international meetings and exhibitions of the achievements of the organization. In 1971, the General Assembly asked that all nations in the UN make October 24 a public holiday.
    God bless Wikipedia.

  14. 1) A group of add campaign executives came up with the slogan “don’t mess with Texas” to title an antilitter campaign in the state. This campaign was important because littering was becoming a problem within this great state and this slogan was both catchy and bold. It is well known that Texans are good people but they are also very tough and loyal to their state and refuse to let anyone mess with Texas.
    2) Within this group of executives there was only one very young man at the age of twenty eight. This man liked his job as an add executive and because of this he always liked to dress nice. Everyday to work he wore a nice suit with a jacket and a tie whereas the other executives and employees just wore nice pants and the women wore nice but casual clothes as well.
    3) Because this man wore such nice suits he had to make sure that he got his suits cleaned by a good cleaners chain. He used “comet” cleaners to clean his suits and he did so every two weeks.
    4) This cleaner was used by multiple executives and business people because they were fast and the quality was great. It also was helpful that they were a chain because their customers were given discounts if they went to comet cleaners anywhere else in the US.
    5) One of these important people included a professor of political science at the University of Columbia who received his doctorate at the University of Chicago. This professor was named Zalmay Khalilzad and he was also the first Muslim to serve in the Presidential cabinet.
    6) This individual, always having nice suits, became known as Ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad. He is the ambassador of the US to the UN, or the United Nations. His experience included being the US ambassador to Iraq and Afghanistan and also being the special assistant to the President with the National Security Council. This individual is intelligent and very skilled at his occupation.

  15. 1) Don’t Mess with Texas. Texas is a state. One of the fifty United States of America. This country was founded by George Washington. George Washington, according to legend, had wooden teeth.

    2) Wooden teeth are, obviously, made of wood, and not very sanitary. Sanitation has been a problem throughout history. It was definitely a big factor in the Black Plague, which totally encompassed Europe.

    3) The Black Plague was the most famous plague in history. 2/3 of Europe died.

    4) 2/3 is also the number of votes needed to pass a bill in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.

    5) “Senate” is derived from the Latin word for senate: ‘senatus, senatus, m.’ The word for senator is “senator, senatoris, m.’ Latin is the ancient language of the Romans, who today are Italians (because Rome is in Italy).

    6) Italy is a member of the United Nations, an organization of countries that wants to make our world a better place.

  16. 1) Don’t Mess With Texas (1) was originally a campaign slogan to promote the stopping of litter (2). However, many people misinterpreted this as a general statement (never messing with the state). Today the saying is highly popular among advertisements and many Texans.

    2) Whenever someone says the word litter, (2) people think about dirty, crumpled paper and bottles on the side of the highway. Litter is a big threat to the environment, especially animals, who usually suffocate in plastic bags or choke on bottlecaps. Perhaps the natural habitat most abused by littering is the ocean (3).

    3) The ocean (3) is a massive body of water that stretches for hundreds and thousands of miles. It’s made up of saltwater and is home to millions of species of animals, coral reefs, and invertebrae. Animals most commonly associated with the ocean are dolphins, sharks (4), whales, and fish.

    4) Sharks (4) have been labeled by the general public as bloodthirsty maneaters and, thanks to Hollywood, are feared by nearly everyone today. However, most prejudices about sharks are actually false, and they are definitely more than just programmed killing machines. Sharks have been around for millions of years and amazingly haven’t evolved much. Perhaps the most intriguing species is the Greenland shark, which swims in the icy waters of Iceland (5) and Greenland.

    5) Many people think Iceland (5) is, well, icy because of its name. It actually has a warm, damp climate and is located south of the Arctic Circle. A common place associated with Iceland is Greenland (which is not green, but icy). Iceland is considered to be a part of Europe and has some of the world’s highest economic and civil freedoms. Iceland is also a member of the United Nations (6).

    6) The United Nations (6), or UN, is an international organization consisting of 192 member states, including the U.S.A. The organization has six official languages: English, French, Arabic, Chinese, Russian, and Spanish. Founded in 1945 after World War II, its main goal is to promote and achieve world peace and human rights.

  17. (1)Don’t Mess With Texas, part of a statewide advertising campaign started in 1986, which tried to cut down on littering on the streets of Texas, earned it self a place in the (2)American Advertising Federation Hall of Fame.

    (2)The American Advertising Federation Hall of Fame was started by a man named Andrew Haire’s proposal in (3)1948.

    Earlier that same year of (3)1948, on January 30, the winter Olympics were held in St. Moritz, (4)Switzerland. These were incidentally the first Olympics held in twelve years, since none were held during WWII.

    In Switzerland, the band Yello was formed in the 70s and became popular for a song called ‘Oh Yeah’, which was featured in American films like Ferris Bueller’s Day Off and Soul Plane. The vocalist/lyricist of the band,(5)Dieter Meier, was born on March 4, 1945.

    In October of 1945, the United Nations was formed, calling together the countries of the world to talk out their problems and never create another world war again. The United States joined the UN on December 4th by an overwhelming vote of 65 to 7 in the Senate, only a month and eleven days after the beginning of the organization.

  18. Step 1 “Don’t Mess With Texas(1)” is the official motto of the attack submarine USS Texas(2)

    Step 2 The USS Texas(2) is a Virginia-class(3) attack sub. The Texas was built in Newport News, Virginia and christened by First Lady Laura Bush on July 31, 2004. USS Texas was commissioned in Galveston, Texas on September 9, 2006 and is currently based at Pearl Harbor. She is the fourth ship to bear the name Texas.

    Step 3 The Virginia-class(3) is an all purpose attack class designed to be a cost effective alternative to the Seawulf-class and replace the Los Angeles-class as the US Navy’s(4) premier attack submarine.

    Step 4 The US Navy(4) was created in the Naval Act of 1794. Since World War II, the US Navy has been undisputedly the world’s most powerful maritime force. Today; operates a fleet of 282 vessels and over 3,700 aircraft. The US Navy(4) has played a major role in world affairs in the late 20th and early 21st century, starting with the Invasion of Grenada(5) in 1983.

    Step 5 The Invasion of Grenada(5), operation Urgent Fury, was the invasion of the island nation of Grenada by US, Jamaican, and other Caribbean forces starting on October 25, 1983. Although the invasion enjoyed widespread popular support at home, it was condemned by several foreign powers, including the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United Nations General Assembly(6).

    Step 6 The United Nations General Assembly is the branch of the UN(6) in which all countries have equal representation. Its powers include overseeing the budget and appointing temporary members to the Security Council. Its first session was on January 10, 1946.

  19. 1)Don’t Mess with Texas was a campaign started in the 1980’s to stop people from littering in Texas. Scince It’s debut, it has met with great success through the use of celebrities in T.V spots.
    2)Scince it’s debut, a wave of anti-litter advertising has swept the entire United States and some other neiboring countries.
    3)Litter control has become one of the big hallmarks of the Protecting the enviorment craze.
    4)Now an international movement, it has helped to slow down and even reverse the destruction of the Earth’s enviorment.
    5) This is one of the many things that has been caused as a result of the United States becoming more involved with global affairs.
    6)This was only possible through the United States membership in the United Nations, which serves as a way to watch and protect the intrests of Democracy and the enviorment,

  20. 1) -The phrase “Don’t Mess With Texas” became a trademark advertising term in the Texas Department of Transportation. The advertisement of this idea spread across the entire state of Texas and was started in 1986 to decrease the amount of littering that was going on the roadways.

    2) -After the first ever media advertisement of “Don’t Mess With Texas” at the 50th Annual Cotton Bowl, featuring Stevie Ray Vaughan, many other athletes, celebrities, and singers have appeared in commercials promoting the phrase.

    3) -An athlete that appeared in one of these commercials was Lance Armstrong, whom my uncle said he’s distantly related to. Lance has been the only person in the world that has managed to win the Tour de France seven consecutive times, from 1999-2005. He is also an extremely lucky man, succeeding a battle of testicular, lung , and brain cancer. Although he did retire from racing after he won his seventh Tour de France in 2005, he later restated that he will be returning back to competitive cycling in September of 2008. France is just one of the various countries that are located in Europe.

    4) -One of the most influential events that occurred in Europe was the Thirty Years War, one of the most horrible wars of conflicting religions that Europe had ever seen.

    5) -On 1648, a treaty was signed that would ultimately end the Thirty Years War for good. The treaty’s name was the Treaty of Westphalia and it was written in French, making French the international language of Europe.

    6) -France is also one of the countries of the United Nations. The United Nations is an organization comprised of different countries from all over the world. It’s purpose was to promote the cooperation in law, human rights, economy, security, and social progress, but its main goal is to achieve world peace.

  21. 1. “Don’t Mess With Texas” (1) was originally a littler campaign started by the Texas Department of Transportation (2). However most people today interpret it as a general statement and many Texas use it to satisfy their pride in their home state.

    2. A form of transportation (2) is a car which most people on this earth use. However the car exhales gas and harms the environment and is a major cause of global warming. Because of this, many car companies are trying to build cars that have a smaller effect on the environment. Experts are concerned that global warming is melting Antarctica and harming local polar bear (3) populations.

    3. The polar bear(3)’s main diet is seal. It has white fur and like all bears hibernates in the winter. The polar bear actually has black skin to keep itself warm in cold conditions. This is very confusing when you take into account the white fur. The mother usually gives birth in the den while in hibernation (4).

    4. Hibernation (4) is the inactive state resembling deep sleep that certain animals living in cold climates undergo during the winter. In hibernation, the body temperature is lowered and breathing and heart rates slow down. Hibernation protects the animal from cold and reduces the need for food during the season when food(5) is scarce.

    5. Food(5) is amazing. Without it, nothing in this wonderful world could live. I personally have no favorite food but I ate Cajun food for dinner tonight. There are many different kinds of foods such as Spanish, American, and Chinese (6).

    6. Chinese (6) is one of the six official languages of the UN. The order five are Arabic, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.

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